Bath salts, sometimes called epsom salts, are recreational designer drugs. These drugs are usually a white powder that resembles Epsom salts but are completely different chemically. There are a number of risks associated with using these drugs. For these reasons, it’s important to understand their full effects before attempting to use them.
Mephedrone, a synthetic stimulant used in bath salts, has similar effects to the drugs cocaine, methamphetamine, LSD, and ecstasy. Users of bath salts develop intense cravings for the substance after just a few uses, but fail to seek medical attention. It can result in agitation, hallucinations, and other potentially dangerous side effects. If you suspect that you or a loved one may be using bath salts, you should immediately get them tested by a certified drug analysis kit.
Bath salts are a relatively new designer drug. They are made up of a combination of synthetic chemicals, including Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), Mephedrone, and Methylone. Combined, these drugs produce effects similar to those of cocaine and methamphetamine, and are sold in tablets, capsules, and powder form.
The Food and Drug Administration first placed mephedrone under control in 2011. It is not approved for human consumption and has been linked to several deaths. In 2011, there were 4,137 calls to the US Poison Control Center for mephedrone-related illnesses.
MDPV, or methampetamine, is a powerful recreational stimulant. Its effects are thought to be mediated by the dopamine transporter. However, there is some uncertainty about the mechanism of action. Animal studies suggest that the drug may influence the activity of other brain networks.
The drug’s psychoactive effects have been studied in animals, but no human trials have been conducted. However, the potential for abuse and addiction remains a concern. Researchers at the Scripps Research Institute conducted the first laboratory study on the drug. They found that MDPV was as addictive as methamphetamine, which is considered one of the most addictive drugs. In the study, rats self-administered doses of MDPV and meth using lever presses. In the meth study, it took about 60 attempts to get a single dose, while in the MDPV study, it took between 600 and 3,000 pushes to reach the desired dose.
Another study involved mice. Mice were split into control and experimental groups. They underwent three-day conditioning sessions in conditioning chambers. The first pairing session involved saline, while the second pairing session was performed with MDPV. During both pairing sessions, mice consumed about the same volume of water.
If you’ve never taken an Epsom salt bath, you’re probably wondering what they’re all about. Despite what you might think, this common salt is actually quite beneficial for you. It helps heal sore muscles and is said to be good for detoxification. It’s also thought to be helpful in muscle pain and arthritis.
This salt contains magnesium and is a natural pain reliever. It can also help lower stress levels and stabilize your mood. Epsom salt is also known for helping to treat inflammatory skin conditions and relieve joint pain. It may even reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and heart attacks. It can also improve digestion.
There are two types of Epsom salts: USP and non-USP. USP means that the salts meet the standards of the United States Pharmacopeia. Always follow the directions on the package when using Epsom salts. It is important to remember that you can’t use Epsom salts in jetted tubs. However, you can use them in regular tubs to remove dead skin and add volume.
Epsom salts are generally recommended for two or three baths per week. For best results, make sure you purchase the salts from a reputable source. The amount you use depends on the brand and formula.
Bath salts contain synthetic cathinones, which are similar to methamphetamines and cocaine. When ingested, bath salts increase dopamine levels in the brain and can have euphoric and sociable effects. However, excessive amounts of bath salts can lead to extreme violence, seizures, and paranoia. They may also cause vomiting, chest pain, and panic attacks. The effects of bath salts can last for several hours.
Since 2010, bath salts have been banned in 31 states in the US. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration reported that bath salt abuse resulted in over 22,000 emergency room visits in 2011. The synthetic cathinone MDPV can increase dopamine levels in the brain ten times more than cocaine.
Bath salts are primarily ingested through snorting, but they can also be smoked or injected into veins. The main synthetic cathinone used in bath salts is mephedrone, which originates in an East African plant. These bath salts are considered illicit substances and can be obtained online from vendors in other countries.
The synthetic cathinones in bath salts can induce serious health problems. In rare instances, the effects of this drug can lead to a condition known as “excited delirium.” This condition can cause dehydration, breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue, and even kidney failure. In some instances, it has even led to death.
Bath salts have been linked to a number of adverse effects, including long-term cognitive impairment and self-harm. These effects have been attributed to the chemicals found in bath salts, which alter levels of neurotransmitters. Various studies on rodents have found that regular binge use can result in neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction.
Regardless of the intended effect, the use of bath salts should be limited to occasional, infrequent sessions. Excessive or prolonged use can increase tolerance and dependence, resulting in withdrawal symptoms. As a result, many bath salt users develop an addiction and become unable to control their use. A recent study in Scotland found that 17.6% of college students had experienced some form of drug dependence after consuming bath salts.
Bath salts are ten times more powerful than cocaine, and they stimulate the production of dopamine and serotonin in the brain. Dopamine is a chemical messenger in the brain, which regulates moods. However, bath salts have other effects. Because the effects of bath salts are so powerful, they’re highly addictive and easy to abuse. Between 2010 and 2013, over 9,000 calls were made to Poison Control Centers regarding adverse reactions to bath salts.
Synthetic cathinones are not detected by routine toxicology tests
Synthetic cathinones are a relatively new class of stimulants that are widely available but are not detected by routine toxicology tests. They can be bought over the counter in the form of ‘bath salts’, ‘plant food,’ and even phone screen cleaner. The chemical structure of synthetic cathinones is similar to that of amphetamines, but they are derived from different plants.
The Synthetic Drug Abuse Prevention Act of 1986 expanded the Federal Analogue Act to include synthetic cannabinoids. This act listed 26 synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones as Schedule 13 drugs. The new law aims to control the use of these chemicals in consumer products by placing them under strict regulatory controls.
Despite advancing laboratory testing, urine and serum screenings can’t detect all synthetic designer drugs. Even when these designer drugs are detected, the levels and concentrations are variable and may not be detectable in routine tests. Therefore, it is crucial for clinicians to ask patients about designer drugs during routine visits, especially in those with SUD or who have undergone mandatory urine testing. The concurrent use of multiple classes of designer drugs increases the risk of adverse effects and toxicity. To avoid missing this important information, clinicians should ask patients about specific products by name and ask them about their usage habits and patterns. They should also ask about the products’ subjective effects.
Benzodiazepines can be taken with bath salts
A doctor may prescribe benzodiazepines for patients who have taken bath salts. The amphetamine-like effects of bath salts can cause agitation, hallucinations, and insomnia. They can also cause cardiovascular collapse and even death. They should be taken only under the supervision of a physician and should be avoided by people with heart disease or those who are sensitive to drugs.
In rare cases, bath salts can cause serotonin syndrome. This is an old medical problem and rarely occurs during standard pharmacologic care. While it’s rare, severe serotonin toxicity can occur. In fact, most psychiatrists don’t see cases of this serious condition in their practice.
In addition, bath salts can cause drug interactions with other medications. Benzodiazepines have been shown to interact with alcohol, sleeping pills, and painkillers. They can also react with female hormones and cold and hay fever medications. Benzodiazepines can also interact with bath salts.
While bath salts are often prescribed for anxiety, they should be used with caution. They can cause serious side effects when ingested, especially in children. Overdose can cause hypertension, delirium, or seizures. In severe cases, patients may have violent or threatening behaviors. In this case, first responders should intervene.